Кто владеет информацией,
|2 dec 2016|
Making speech on economic forum in Davos in the end of January, 2007 the head of the Russian delegation, the first vice-president of the government of the Russian Federation D.A.Medvedev declared that "being a member of "G8" and remaining a developing economy, Russias in a unique position: we can allow ourselves not to try to catch up somebody, but to create new technological way". New technological way which would become a natural basis for information society which Russia could enrich by own experience of transfer of the mankind into postindustrial stage of its development.
By 2006 Russia overcame the basic destabilizing moments of internal structural crisis and did not admit serious interethnic collisions. The country started realization of strategy of innovative development which indicative undertakings became priority national projects (PNP) in the sphere of education, public health services, housing construction and support of agrarian sector of economy. In essence specified strategy is aimed at familiarizing of the Russian Federation to the forms, methods and technologies of material production, norms and values of social-political life of information society. Here it is necessary to note with satisfaction that the country leaders developing and putting into practice the Russian model of going into the future coordinates it with objective laws of modern world development.
The matter is that the fifth from the moment of the beginning of industrial revolution technological way which is characteristic for the majority of industrially developed countries has started to develop from the middle of 70th years of XX century and is based on electronics, computer facilities, telecommunications, low-waste and high technology manufactures. It carried features both of industrial and postindustrial ways of manufacture, that is it was in essence transitive. And only the sixth technological way in which center will appear nanoelectronics, genic engineering, nontraditional energetics, already existing now in embryo, becomes completely adequate to a technological way of manufacture of an information society. D.Bell marked in this connection: "The postindustrial or information era comes as a result of a long circuit of technological changes. Not all the countries - and by present time only few ones, - are ready to enter it ".
Despite of a rudimentary condition of components of an information way of manufacture, nevertheless, it is possible already now to designate its main features:
- humanization of the techniques, consisting not only in minimizing of heavy physical and monotonous work but also in giving the work creative character;
- increase of research intensity of manufacture, shares of the technologies realizing advanced achievements of a scientific idea;
- miniaturization of the techniques allowing to individualize and diversify work of people involved in manufacture, to carry work to the house, etc.;
- ecologization of manufacture providing use of low-waste and without waste technologies, rigid nature protection standards;
- combination of localization and globalization of manufacture, an example of which can serve information networks attending a person no matter where it was and simultaneously make him citizen of the world because it gives him the benefits of the creative work of all mankind.
The core of information-technological way of manufacture develops of three interconnected directions of development and corresponding alternation of generations of techniques and technologies - microelectronics, biotechnology and computer science. The first opened the way for application of computers, other microprocessor techniques in all spheres of human activity. The second put the base of modern genic engineering which can solve many problem questions in life of a person and all mankind. The third is connected with all-round information of a life of people all over the world and represents intellectual-humanistic reorganization of a live activity of a person and society on the basis of more and more full use of information. Simultaneously information is a complex of measures directed on use of authentic, exhaustive and modern knowledge in all socially significant kinds of human activity. Computerization comes to the foreground an a rating of components of informatization.
The aim of informatization of our country for the first time was formulated in 1989 having given birth in some years to the concept of "information of Russia" which started with several ideas:
- personal computer connected to global information networks should enter into each house and in each family;
- each member of a society should have an opportunity in due time to receive by means of computer full and a trustworthy information from any state or the state body, being thus practically in any place of global space;
- to give an opportunity of operative communications as to each member of a society with another and with the state, public structures irrespective of a site of the citizen;
- to serve by means of a computer and information networks new forms of activity and services which could appear in work, creative activity, education and upbringing, public health, etc.
If to start with data of the 24th of March, 2006 the Internet in Russia was used by 23,8 million people (without taking into account children under 18 years old), basically younger than 35 years, among them two thirds were made up by people with the maximum or incomplete higher education. In Russia Internet users are well-fixed, educated and socially active people (61% from them refer themselves to a middle class, 12% estimated own incomes as high and above an average level). It is indicative at the same time that in Russian Internet-audience only 9% of users used network for reception of information of cultural or educational questions, another 10% were interested in business, banks, finance, analytics, examinations, laws while the problematics of sports was preferred by 9%. On number of users of Internet (to the end of 2006 - about 26 million) Russia occupies the 5th place, on a parity of number of users of Internet and all population of the country the 9th in the world. Its possible to state that the structure of Internet-audience and technical possibilities of the network in Russia turns Internet into the unique environment with completely new level of freedom, speed of information receipt and pluralism of communication.
Owing to priority national projects, Russia makes a real jump in use of opportunities of the Internet for accelerated promotion to information society. Realization of PNP in the sphere of education will lead already in 2007 to connection of all school establishments of the country (about 53 thousand) to the Internet. It will not only expand Russian Internet-audience at once not less than on 15 million people but also will provide an opportunity of the global communication for inhabitants of all regions of Russia, will lead the process of innovation of education in the country to the world standards, will let to expand cultural horizons of the Russians. The head of national projects D.A.Medvedev managed to involve into the business of internetization of the Russian schools the owner of "Microsoft" B.Gates. The richest person of a planet highly estimated the decision of the state to put in modernization of the Russian education not less than 30 billion roubles within 3 years having emphasized that "the most important in the field of a state policy are investments in sphere of education" which becomes "a basis of bases" of a modern society. From his part he promised to make it so that program supply of the access to the Internet would be obtainable to the schools of Russia.
D.A.Medvedev and B.Gates took part in a seminar on the theme Innovations and Information Technologies: Global Calls, Opportunities and Successes of Development" where Gates supported development in Russia of broadband access to the Internet and its providing in all educational institutions including establishments of the higher school. He also got interested in plans of use of opportunities of computers and Internet in development of system of public health services and work of medical establishments. The American visitor also got acquainted with the project developed and realized in Tatarstan of "electronic government" allowing any inhabitant of this republic by means of a computer and Internet to communicate and receive interesting to him information from any state body. Presence of "electronic government" for all countries of the world is one of the most important criteria in estimation of their "advancement" in the matter of informatization of all parts of life of citizens, that is it is a marker of a level of reclaiming by thme of the norms and values of life of information society. In this direction of informatization of the country Russia hasnt made big progress.
Informatization as a whole - is a practical phenomenon of modern scientific and technical revolution which deep essence consists in formation of organic communication of a science with manufacture, in transformation of manufacture into large-scale innovative process. At the same time, it is a stage of world development when to high technologies - higt-tech, directed on change of an environment, humanitarian technologies, high-hume humanitarian technologies are being added which include means directly connected with change of a person himself, his conscience. Information technologies, at last, will bring on their wings not only new public relations, but also new shape of mankind when it armed by collective intelligence will come nearer to an opportunity of management of world processes and problems proceeding from interests of a general survival and further development.
Strictly speaking, in conditions of modern world development information society can develop in two alternative models. First, in monologic variant connected with the claim of one of the world cultures, in our case western, to act in a role of the world standard superseding all others. Secondly, in the dialogical variant meaning that future shape of the world and its public structures will generate all great world civilizations on the basis of a partner exchange and a consensus in relation to the basic values necessary to the mankind. However, that new world the modern mankind is getting involved in, is too complicated and inconsistent, that it could be explained and described in a language of only one culture as well as to be subdued by it. Acting at St.-Petersburg forum on economic cooperation, D.A.Medvedev with good reason declared that "globalization is mistakenly understood by those who think that it means full unification of all models of development on the basis of one, even the most progressive dominating model".
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