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|18 jan 2017|
To Rob Population Is Very Easy Because the State Created All Conditions for This Purpose
Chief editor of FORUM.msk Anatoly Baranov talks on the theme of corruption with the Supervisor of the Institute of Globalization Problems, Doctor of Science Michael Deljagin.
- Michael Gennadevich, today everybody alltogether, it is possible to say, nationally, struggle with corruption. Representatives of authority starting from the president and finishing with the chapter of some village administrations. We have just signed the Anticorruption pact which was accepted by the Russian opposition. Judging from the questions to the president from citizens, the question of corruption excites the population even more than its, the population, living wage. And thus everyone "gets", everyone "gives". For example, I gave today a bribe to the GAI officer. We will talk about corruption, but I will give the bribe to the officer again
- Corruption is an integral part of the political system developed in Russia for today. Strictly speaking, the main maintenance of 15 years of the Russian reforms was steady and consecutive release, emancipation of ruling bureaucracy from any control; on this way it changed not only allies, rhetoric and ideology but also changed itself till it reached the aim. This aim is - practical eradication of democracy as institute of compulsion of the state to the responsibility before society and successive discredit of all external features of democracy by the state.
Theres a symbiosis of the liberal fundamentalists taking away money of the population in favour of business and the power oligarchy taking away money from business for unproductive consumption. This economy has incomparably more "self-eating" character, than Soviet but the main thing is that - it integrally is not capable of development: economic growth is not accompanied by qualitative development that is most brightly emphasized by practical absence of significant structural changes. Corruption in this system is not a cause or by-effect but its system-making element.
- That means that to fight with corruption for the present Russian statehood is equal to the trial to win own shadow?
- Its the same as to try to get rid of own skeleton. But even in your terms the shadow does not stir to existence of the owner and corruption destroys him. The growth of bribes extorted from business and requisitions today is limited only by appetites of power oligarchy and will inevitably exceed financial opportunities of business even at the most favorable conjuncture that will lead to sudden for the extraneous observer destabilization of formally quite stable enterprises. Already today, according to a number of estimations, bribes, charges and tax payments (even Putin a year and a half ago compared activity of taxation body with terrorism! and since that time it only grew worse) reach 20% of incomes of successful Russian companies. It is clear that in such conditions only separate types of business can develop successfully - especially if to consider that alongside with thievery from above grows thievery from below, spontaneous plunder of corporate property by workers who in conditions of weakness of traditions and courts take an example from the state. Losses from thievery from below, by estimations available, have been doubled for the last 3 years and reaches 5-7 % of the turnover. People can be understood: they simply imitate the state and its officials. Such system cannot live, at least it cant live for long.
- However we observe a proceeding strengthening of the system with blocked channels of a feedback between authority and society, with growing dictatorship of bureaucracy up to a level of local self-management. There has just passed the initiative of "Edinaya Russia" about cancellation of general elections. It is obvious that in existing system personnel selection on employment of large posts becomes corruption.
- Its continuation of cleaning off of all democratic elements of the system of the governmental management. Really, for our officials the idea that people can solve something by themselves is absolutely intolerable and unnatural - if they take decisions by themselves, who will pay them? This idea can be felt long time ago since the times when Putin after Beslan cancelled elections of governors. It is very interesting that present step back to madness and wildness has been made, first of all, with very big delay and, secondly, without any acts of terrorism. I think that this step has been made by Edinaya Russia as a result of appearance of the threat from the part of the another party party of Mironov.
Its not a secret that in the majority of regions, especially, where the governor is not so clever there is almost natural opposition between the governor and mayor. In those places where the governor is - a member of "Edinaya Russia" and its practically everywhere except for two or three regions in all country - is logical to assume that mayor of capital automatically simply by virtue of the fact that he is objectively the opponent to the governor should be among the members of Mironov's party. The example of Samara is very indicative. "Edinaya Russia tries not to let it to be like this, tries to do at once so that the mayor cant be an opponent to the governor in the frames of the outsider party. So, besides the general trend on eradication of lumps of democracy and on deprivation of people of the rights to make decisions concerning their destiny and even to reflect on the destiny, it is also such narrow-party egoism of officials from a party of "a blue bear".
In such conditions each corrupted official becomes the executor of the will not of the law and people but of the one who appointed him or simply pays. The main problem of Russia consists not in available of the states and even not in its power and influence but in its full release from any control form the part of the society and from any responsibility before society. This irresponsibility and submission to the private interests of bureaucrats making it makes present Russian state antisocial force being direct threat to the country. Its funny to say that in such situation Russia can develop successfully its mere existence is under the threat
- You have already told once that in reality we live in the conditions of war, the war of destruction of our state, country and people.
- It is like this and its not a hyperbole, not for «witticism», as it is told it is severe reality. Recently, on a meeting with Francis Fukuyama in Kiev, I asked to pay attention that cemeteries of the Russian cities and even villages are covered with tombs of the young men killed in the Russian privatization. Nobody and never counted them, but, by the most modest estimations, more than hundred thousand Russians full of forces and energy have been killed also because the American advisers and Russian reformers considered their main purpose I let myself to recite supplantation of the motive of the right by the motive of profit. This is a macroeconomic factor as soon as those people could and wanted to work. In its essence the whole generation was cut out not only by despair and hunger but also by direct murders.
And who said that we live in peaceful time? Lets tell that the budget-2007 is - a military budget: the budget of war of ruling bureaucracy against own people. The policy of the last years has been continuing when, for example, for the reduction of inflation for 1,1 percentage item during 2004-2005 was paid by lives of more than 1,3 million Russians who ostensibly made "natural" but in practice unnatural, caused mainly by social factors - that is by state policy decrease of population!
Conversations about social character of the budget in these conditions have mainly propaganda character. The salary of the state employees is being indexed only before elections but almost moderately to formal inflation (and for certain below its real level).
The average increase of pensions will make up 15,3 % in 2007 as a result of separate indexations of base and insurance parts (on the average according to the results of the year 430 rbl./month, that will be eaten" by the rise in price of housing and communal services and medicines). Even according to the government, the ratio of an average pension to the official (underestimated) living wage of the pensioner will be decreased from 109,2 % in 2006 to 103,1%.
In percentage aspect growth of charges on economy and state is - 49,8 % and 49,5 % (219,9 and 172,7 billion rbl.) is maximal. But the basic directions of charges on economy (except for the developments of nanotechnologies) are not connected with modernization: it is a support of agriculture, reduction of cross subsidizing in electric power industry and on a railway transport (that is satisfaction of appetites of natural monopolies) and insignificant on their scales and purposes investment programs.
The growth of charges on public health services and education (in 3,4 % and 31,5 % or for 49,2 and 69,6 billion rbl.) not only is insignificant by the size of gain but is also directed not so much on the decision of public problems but on extra nutrition of business which have been developed in these spheres during reforms, business in many respects connected with officials (first of all, as far as it can be understood, reformers).
Charges on culture and mass-media have grown in 25,2 % but it looks solidly only in relative parameters: in roubles the growth has made 12,9 billion.
Meanwhile defence costs have grown in 24,6 % (for 161,9 billion rbl.), safety and protective power - 23,1 % (124,6 billion rbl.).
Budget decrease of charges on social policy in 2,4 % (for 5,3 billion rbl., in real expression - in 10,2 %) and on housing and communal services - in 7,7 % (for 4,1 billion rbl., in real expression - on 15,1 %) dispels a myth about social character.
In structure of charges the charges on the state needs (from 10,3 % up to 12,2 %) and national economy (from 8,0 % up to 9,5 %) have grown sharply. Expenses on social policy (from 5,0 % up to 3,9 %) and percentage charges (from 4,6 % up to 2,9 %) have considerably cut down.
On the integrated groups of items of charges the charges of the state character (state needs, defense, safety and the law and order) are priorities: their share has grown from 38,0 % up to 39,4 % and has remained maximal.
- But the structure of the budget - is not an explanation of how it will be used. Perhaps, charges on safety and protection of public order somehow will indirectly concern simple citizens. Though, certainly, they can concern, say, with increase of GAI officers and, accordingly, necessity to give them "for livery" more bribes. How to define where and how this or that clause of the budget will be used - in fact its not written in the law "on bribes", everything is accurately stated there?
- Lets pay attention that the majority of items of the budget include formulation "the government has the right", that is they transfer essentially important questions into the competence of the government without any control over it. It creates preconditions for very wide displays of arbitrariness and corruption. For example, art. 32 gives the government the right to direct on additional financing of socially significant actions and objects stipulated by conditions of the state lottery, its additional incomes but it doesnt define at all what should be done with this money if the government doesnt use its right.
The part of items of expenditure is counted literally up to the last thousand roubles while the part - is approximated to hundreds millions and even billions. It is clear that the last points on the absence of distinct calculations and assignment of means "by guess work", outside of binding to specific targets. Special item of the budget has given the Government the right to give the state guarantees without showing interest in financial conditions of the companies which will receive these guarantees. I hope its clear what opportunities it gives?
- Recently You quite often speak about discordance in the top echelons of power connecting it with the coming federal elections. Does it mean that the ruling elite is in crisis?
- Yes, its in crisis. But the most important is that the reason of this crisis - vicious motivation. Elites always fight with each other its a normal phenomenon: in America, for example, republicans "fight" with democrats and within the limits of a republican party there is a struggle between neoconservatives and more moderate politicians. This all is inevitable. But in the West the contradictory parties always back on society. Thus the American elites both compete and fight with each other for the sake of the only thing - for the sake of America. Yes, in passing they satisfy own needs, solve extremely personal questions. But nevertheless they serve the country and do not do what, from their point of view, is harmful to the nation. In other words, they really have the priority of national interests. As to our today's elite has another priority - a priority of personal interests. People simply use the country as the tool for personal enrichment, not connecting thus their future and the future of their children with "this country". It transforms them in what was called compradors bourgeois. That is the principal difference of todays elite and in it it doesnt differ from the previous one yeltsins.
But there are much more money in the country than any elite can drink on and entertains itself. What is the direction of the flow of petrodollars? Why they dont reach simple citizens?
- Any person without control does what he wants - walks, passes the street on red light, jumps from the bridge... Or fills own pockets. Our officials wish to work personally for themselves instead of simple citizens. That is the way they work operating monetary streams. People are now much more deprived of civil rights than in the Soviet Union. To rob population is very easy because the state created all conditions for this purpose.
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