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|25 sep 2017|
Network Democracy and Political Social - Network Movements
Igor Adman 23.01.2009
Principles of network Internet-democracy
Network democracy is based on direct will of citizens with the help of modern online technologies (first of all Internet).
Principles of voting at representative democracy are known. It's so-called tripletail: general, secret and equal voting right. The right and technical opportunity for all citizens not only to elect representatives but also to represent interests and sights, to participate in decision-making process without intermediaries is being added to this set in network direct democracy.
The main principle of network democracy - opportunity for everyone to participate directly in acceptance of every significant decisions of community to which he belongs on-line (citizens of the state, inhabitants of region or settlement, a party, trade union, etc.).
1. The right to participation directly in decision-making
Each member of the community has nominal account (if one wants - a blog) in special network and the right to participate in all votings on acceptance of collective decisions. Decisions are accepted at positive voting of the majority of participants of the community or of the majority voted in time determined by the rules.
2. The right not only to make but also to cancel decisions made at any time
Participants of the community at any moment can cancel the decision made for which the majority voted or to displace the representative chosen by them. There is original electronic "box for black balls" in the community in which offers on cancellation or change of the accepted decisions are being collected. When this box is overflown (more than a half of participants support cancellation) - the decision is cancelled.
3. Equality of participants
There is no division into voters and their deputies. Delegated powers can have only executive character and cannot include making of basic decisions (legislative, budgetary, political, etc.).
Powers are not delegated for sure for this or that term as in representative democracy. They cease to be valid as soon as participants cease to trust the representative and the critical quantity of "black balls" collects.
«Parties of new type» - social - network political movements
Political social - network movements as well as authorities and local self-management can be formed by principle of network online democracy. Today there are technical opportunities for organization of some types of "parties of new type" which will be headed not by "leaders and functional bureaucrats" but directly by participants.
Such party can be organized as closed social Internet - network which users become all participants of the movement under real names. Voting (and discussions aforegoing) in such network define strategy and tactics of a "party of new type", structure of its coordinating bodies, position of fraction in parliament on line.
Now all laws are discussed backstage at sessions of party fractions making decisions how their deputies will vote. Position of parliamentary fraction of "party of new type" in relation to the bills discussed will be determined by voting of all interested participants of the movement. Any legislative offers considered are put first of all on voting in social network of party - movement.
Further the fraction of the party supports in the parliament those laws for which the majority of participants of the movement has been voted and opposes initiatives rejected by them.
Thus, functions of the members of fraction of the "party of new type" in legislature of authority will be limited as powers of electors of the president of the USA. They will be obliged to carry out assignments of ordinary participants of the movement at voting.
Social - network political movement:
1. Movement formed and controlled on the basis of principles of network democracy. That is the way coordinating and representative bodies are being formed, decisions on admittance and ruling out of participants, program documents, decisions about tactics, actions, promotion of candidates at elections, etc are also should be done this way.
2. The movement organizing on the basis of principles of network democracy wide public discussion of the current state of affairs and the program of development of the country. For example, with the help of definition of the attitude of a society to the bills accepted by real authorities, virtual duplication of their work (as the Australian party "SenatorOnline" tries to do).
If such movement is not presented in a legislature of authority, it can participate in elections so that with the help of formation of fractions to set aside the will of voters operatively.
Thus social - network movement directly attracting citizens to take part in the development and amking of political decisions becomes the tool of direct democracy.
Formation of "parties of new type" as social - network movements can become the beginning of transition from representative to direct network democracy in the state scale.
Whether it's difficult to protect network democracy from falsifications?
Certainly, none of the forms of democracy gives an absolute guarantee from a various sort of falsifications and juggling. Thus network democracy is no more subjected to this threat, than traditional representative.
Reasoning that practice of "churning" of counters by administrators of a resource or hacker attacks makes network democracy impossible are widespread. With the same success it is possible to say that practice of larceny in supermarkets makes trade there senseless or opportunity of a fake of credit cards gives up as a bad job with electronic payments.
I inform those whom this information is not known yet, the problem of correctness of voting through Internet has been solved technically long time ago. For example, in Estonia.
If the Russian swindlers in the project "Name of Russia" and other alike do not carry out correct voting, only because it's not favourable to them.
To reduce opportunity of abusing at carrying out of voting to the maximum is necessary to observe three conditions:
1. Registered registration giving opportunity of check of the personal data of the user. At registration for voting the user specifies passport data and contact phone.
2. User should have possibility to check up if his choice was taken into account correctly at calculation. Personal code for limited access into database of the voting giving opportunity to check up how his voice is fixed should be given to the user.
3. Honesty of organizers of the project. This is necessary conditions for normal works of every social institute.
To stop process of distribution of network democracy is impossible. As it is impossible to stop technical progress; to forbid flights in space, experiments on cloning or development of renewed energy sources. I dare to assume that it's distribution of direct network democracy, including social - network movements, will determine future development of political system of the advanced countries of the world (including, I hope Russia).
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